Biopsies: Uses, Types And What To Expect

Posted On Jan 09, 2023

3 Min Read

Cancer Treatment in Bangalore

A biopsy involves collecting a tissue sample from the body to examine it more closely (under a microscope). A biopsy is usually recommended by a doctor to find out the cause of an unexplained mole, lesion, inflammation, or infection or to determine if a tumor is cancerous. 

Types of Biopsies

  • Endoscopic Biopsy

This type of biopsy is performed with the help of a fiberoptic endoscope, which is a long, thin tube and boasts a close-focusing telescope at the end for viewing. The scope is passed through a small incision or a natural body orifice (mouth or rectum). It is used for looking at suspicious body parts so that a small amount of tissue can be removed for further examination. The endoscope is generally inserted into the abdominal cavity (laparoscopy), gastrointestinal tract (alimentary tract endoscopy), joint cavity (arthroscopy), bladder (cystoscopy), bronchial system, trachea, or the mid-portion of the chest.

  • Incisional or Excisional Biopsy

The type of biopsy is usually performed when a deeper or wider portion of the tissue is required. With the help of a scalpel (surgical knife), a small part of a large tumor or a full thickness of the skin is removed so it can be examined closely under a microscope. While an incisional biopsy involves the removal of only a portion of the tumor, an excisional biopsy involves the removal of the entire tumor.

  • Bone Marrow Biopsy

This type of biopsy involves the collection of a small amount of bone marrow fluid (aspiration) or solid bone marrow tissue (called a core biopsy). The tissue is generally collected from the back of the hip bones so that it can be examined for the size, maturity, and number of blood cells or abnormal cells. 

  • Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Biopsy

During this biopsy, tiny pieces are removed from a tumor with the help of a thin needle and syringe. Local anesthesia is sometimes used for preventing discomfort and pain during the procedure. FNA biopsy is generally performed to study thyroid and breast tumors and also to analyze large lymph nodes near melanoma.

  • Punch Biopsy

A punch biopsy involves the removal of a deeper sample of skin with a biopsy instrument. After administering local anesthesia, the instrument is rotated on the skin’s surface until it cuts through all the layers, such as the epidermis, dermis, and the most superficial parts of the subcutis (fat). 

  • Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM)

This technique helps healthcare providers look at an abnormal area of skin to a certain depth without removing a skin sample or cutting it into the skin. 

  • Shave Biopsy

It involves the removal of the top layers of skin by shaving them off. Shave biopsies are performed for diagnosing squamous cell or basal cell skin cancers and other skin lesions. 

What to Expect During a Biopsy?

Biopsies vary significantly from one another depending on how difficult it is to remove the tissue. In clinical terms, this is called ‘invasiveness’. While a minimally invasive biopsy (like most skin biopsies) may be performed in a hospital or some other healthcare facility immediately after the discovery of the lesion, more invasive biopsies are usually performed in a surgery center, hospital, or doctor’s office. To know more, consult with the best interventional radiologist in Bangalore

Why are Biopsies Recommended?

The biopsy treatments in Bangalore are commonly recommended to detect cancer and identify the cause of diseases. Besides, a biopsy is also performed to determine the possibility of certain diseases, such as:

  • Breast cancer when a mammogram shows a mass or lump.

  • Melanoma when a mole on the skin changes shape quickly.

  • Cirrhosis in a patient already diagnosed with chronic hepatitis.

Department of Interventional Radiology

Manipal Hospitals

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