Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, & Management

Posted On Jul 15, 2022

Dr. Deepak Verma

Consultant - Internal Medicine

Manipal Hospitals - Ghaziabad

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Treatment in Ghaziabad

How to Manage Type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body either fails to produce the amount of insulin required to maintain healthy bodily function or loses its ability to respond to insulin (Insulin resistance). Insulin is the chemical our body produces, which helps maintain sugar levels in our body. 

The elementary step to diabetes management is understanding your symptoms. If you observe any signs listed above and think you may have type 2 diabetes, contact the best Internal Medicine hospital in Ghaziabad as it has the best diagnosis and treatment options and doctors for diabetes treatment in Ghaziabad.

Types of Diabetes: Symptoms and Causes 

There are two types of diabetes - type 1 and 2.

Type 1 diabetes is often called juvenile diabetes as it is diagnosed more prominently in the young populace.

Type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance is found to occur more commonly in the senior populace.

If you have type 1 diabetes, your body's immune system attacks your insulin-producing cells (beta cells), causing a shortage of insulin, which can cause high blood glucose levels.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic situation affecting your body's use of glucose. Glucose acts as a fuel, which your cells need to do their work. It would help if you had glucose for energy. It would help if you also had insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows glucose to enter your cells so your cells can use it as fuel. In type 2 diabetes, the body doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't utilise insulin properly. A lot of glucose then stays in your blood, and not enough reaches your cells. Over time, high blood glucose leads to severe problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, gums and teeth.

Early symptoms of diabetes can include:

  • Extreme thirst and frequent urination

  • Constant hunger or feeling of not being satiated

  • Unintended weight loss or gain

  • Slow healing of wounds

  • Fatigue and irritability, and if left untreated, symptoms can become severe

  • Blurred vision or frequent changes in vision, such as seeing spots or wavy lines that do not go away after you rub your eyes; seeing halos around lights at night; having difficulty adjusting to dim light (poor night vision)

  • Numbness or tingling in hands or feet (usually in both feet)

 Tips to Manage Type 2 Diabetes

  • Track your food intake and physical activity every day to help make sure that you're consuming a diet that fits your bodily requirement of nourishment.

  • Indulge in 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on most days of the week.

  • Take medication as prescribed by your doctor or healthcare team.

  • Check your blood sugar level regularly using a glucose meter or test strips and glucometer machine to ensure it doesn't rise too high or fall too low over time while taking insulin therapy.

  • Controlled sugar levels reduce risk factors for heart disease, such as elevated cholesterol levels, without causing hypoglycemia or low blood sugar.

Keep Track of What you Eat

An optimal way to manage your diabetes is by keeping track of what you eat. Eating the right food plays a central role in regulating blood sugar levels and can help prevent diabetes complications. Tracking what you eat can be highly beneficial to managing your condition. Foods high in sugar content, which may cause sharp spikes in blood sugar should be avoided. Fruits and vegetables should be a part of your diet.

Be Active Every Day

Exercise doesn't have to be a heavy workout or weight training. There are several ways to start working out or exercising. One can start with small steps and opt for fun activities and slowly build on them.

Here are some tips for staying motivated:

  • A simple pedometer or step counter on the phone is one of the best ways to start and measure your progress!

  • Walk more often, but don't forget about other forms of exercise, such as running or biking.

  • Try doing something new once in a while for variety—it keeps things fresh and exciting!

  • Find friends who will join you in working out together; group activities are fun and enjoyable. The added benefit of quality time spent with loved ones brings happiness.

Take medication as prescribed

By following the doctor's prescribed treatment plan, you can control your blood sugar levels and prevent complications. Further, following dietary suggestions from the dieticians help in the proper management of the condition with lesser chances of complication.

In addition to taking medications as prescribed, ensure that you record all medication doses taken.

Blood sugar monitoring

Blood sugar levels can fluctuate every few hours in the body depending on the level of activity, temperature conditions and food consumption of a person. Therefore, routine monitoring helps in managing the condition of patients. Further, serious complications can be prevented with routine checks and monitoring.

  • It is recommended to check your blood sugar once a day. If you are unwell, or have a fever or infection, check more often.

  • Check your blood sugar levels if you are taking a new medication or changing prescriptions as side effects may vary.

  • Check more often if you are pregnant. Consult with our doctors for diabetes in Ghaziabad to find out what precautions you must take during your pregnancy.

  • Check if the weather is hot and humid or cold and dry, as your body's needs for insulin vary with the extreme shifts in temperature.

  • Check more often when exercising or doing other strenuous activities as they may lead to fluctuations in blood sugar levels.

Get plenty of rest

Sleep is just as important as food and exercise for the body. When you're well-rested, your body can better deal with the stress of daily living and manage its blood sugar levels.

Sleep helps maintain your immune system by overcoming diabetes complications such as retinopathy (eye disease) and neuropathy (nerve damage).

When you don't get enough sleep, your appetite increases even if you’re eating in the normal amounts. The normal food intake doesn't make you feel full or satisfied! This overeating can be detrimental in the case of a person battling diabetic conditions in the body.

Getting enough rest helps keep food cravings under control so that they don't lead to overeating.

Treatment of Diabetes

So far, Type 1  diabetes has no known cure. Insulin therapy is the way forward to manage the condition, but the key is to get diagnosed timely and start the routine management early.

Regardless of how it happens, if left untreated for too long and unchecked for years without getting proper treatment, this can lead to serious health problems such as heart disease or nerve damage impacting different body parts.

Diabetes is a severe and complex condition, hence it is essential to consult the best Internal Medicine specialist in Ghaziabad who can help you manage the situation. Book an appointment with our diabetes specialist if you want to know more about Type1 and Type 2 diabetes treatment in Ghaziabad.  


Dr. Deepak Verma

Consultant - Internal Medicine

Manipal Hospitals, Ghaziabad