What Are Neurological Disorders?
Neurological disorders are globally the leading cause of disability and death. They occur when the nervous system is damaged or malfunctions. The nervous system comprises the brain and spinal cord, which control all our functions, from breathing to walking. It also controls our senses, such as sight and hearing, and produces hormones that regulate our emotions and behaviour. Read the blog on How stress impacts the nervous system to get through knowledge on the matter.
There are more than 100 recognised neurological disorders. These include Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Stroke, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome and many others. Some conditions may be inherited, while others may result from an injury or infection.
Manipal Hospitals is the best neurology hospital in Gurgaon that offers diagnosis and management for over 100 neurological conditions like:
- Acute Stroke
- Cerebrovascular Diseases
- Paediatric and Adult Epilepsy
- Neuromuscular Diseases
- Parkinson's Disease and related disorder
- Alzheimer's Disease
- Disorders of Cognition
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Demyelinating Disorders.
Common Neurological Disorders
Acute stroke is a sudden attack or brain damage caused by a blood clot or bleeding in the brain. The symptoms can appear suddenly and often include weakness, paralysis, numbness and difficulty speaking or understanding speech. Acute stroke is a medical emergency that needs immediate medical care to prevent further damage to the brain.
Cerebrovascular Diseases affect the blood vessels in the brain. They can cause a stroke if they result in bleeding or plaque buildup in the arteries. A stroke can lead to significant impairment, including death, depending on its severity and location within the brain.
Epilepsy causes repeated seizures and episodes of disturbed brain function due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. These disturbances can cause changes in awareness, behaviour and movement. Epilepsy may be controlled but not necessarily cured. It is a chronic condition. There are many types of epilepsy, and some may have more than one type.
Neuromuscular diseases are a broad category of disorders affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. They can be inherited or acquired, and they can affect many different parts of the body. Neuromuscular diseases can lead to muscle weakness and atrophy, making it difficult for patients to perform daily tasks. If a neuromuscular disease affects the legs, it can also cause difficulty walking and standing.
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a condition that progressively deteriorates the brain. It causes the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain's region that control movements leading to tremors, muscle stiffness, and balance problems. Symptoms usually begin between 50 and 60 and progress slowly over 10 to 15 years. There is currently no cure for PD. Treatments are available to help manage symptoms.
Alzheimer's is a brain disorder leading to progressive memory loss and other cognitive symptoms. It is a leading cause of Dementia among older people. Plaques and Tangles are prime suspects of Alzheimer's causing cell death and tissue loss. Plaques are accumulated protein fragments between neurons. Tangles are insoluble twisted fibres inside the brain's cells.
As time progresses, the plaques and tangles accumulate in the brain, eventually leading to death. The disease can be diagnosed with an MRI or PET scan. While there is no cure, timely detection and diagnosis can help plan the course of treatment to help manage symptoms and slow disease progression.
Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a disease in which the body's immune system attacks the nerve fibres. The resulting damage causes communication problems between the brain and other body parts. It can cause paralysis, vision loss, memory problems, and fatigue, among many other symptoms.
Demyelinating disorders cause damage to the Myelin Sheath, the protective covering around the axons of nerves which may cause muscle weakness and paralysis.
Several treatment options can help improve symptoms and prevent further damage. Some advanced therapies are showing beneficial results for treatment as well.
EEG (Electroencephalography) is a technique that involves placing electrodes on the scalp to measure electrical activity in the brain. The electrodes pick up signals from the brain and convert them into numbers for analysis. EEGs diagnose conditions like epilepsy, sleep disorders and head trauma. You can get the best eeg test in Gurgaon with the help of a team of experts at Manipal Hospitals.
MRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is a non-invasive medical diagnostic procedure that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create cross-sectional images of the body. MRI is the preferred imaging modality for neurological disorders and detects Tumours, Strokes, Inflammation, Infections and other Brain and Spinal Cord Diseases. MRI is also used to evaluate blood flow in the brain (cerebral blood flow studies). The MRI scan provides an image of the brain's anatomy (physical structure) and can be used to detect bleeding inside or around the brain or spinal cord.
A CT scan is an X-ray that uses a computer to create cross-sectional images of the body. It diagnoses neurological disorders like brain tumours, strokes and other conditions like Alzheimer's or Multiple Sclerosis. CT scans also detect cancers and help plan treatment for certain types of cancer.
Ultrasound is a powerful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of neurological disorders. The non-invasive procedure uses sound waves to create images of soft tissues, such as muscles and nerves. The appearance of these tissues can identify potential causes for symptoms, helping with diagnosis and treatment.
A Lumbar Puncture (LP) collects Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) from the spinal canal. Doctors draw out a sample of CSF for testing by inserting a needle into the lower back. This procedure is a part of routine medical care and concerns the central nervous system.
EMG (Electromyography) measures the electrical activity in the muscles. It diagnoses problems with the nervous system, including nerve damage, muscle weakness and paralysis. The small needle electrodes placed on the skin overlying the muscles detect the electrical activity in the muscles. The Electromyograph (EMG) machine amplifies the signal from these electrodes and displays it on a computer screen for analysis.
- NCS - Nerve Conduction Study
A Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) measures how quickly signals travel from the brain to the rest of the body. An NCS can help diagnose nerve disorders like Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
The procedure typically involves placing electrodes on the skin near the tested area and stimulating those nerves with an electrical current. Electrodes capture the electrical activity from the stimulated nerves and send it to a computer for analysis.
Manipal Hospitals, Gurgaon Electrophysiology lab boasts high-precision Electroencephalogram (EEG), Video Telemetry and Electromyography (EMG) scans that allow you to diagnose neurological disorders with the help of experts.
An Electroencephalogram (EEG) records the brain's electrical activity. The EMG measures electrical activity in response to a nerve's muscle stimulation. The Electrophysiology Lab provides comprehensive testing for neurological disorders.
3-Tesla MRI is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that uses magnetic fields to create detailed images of the body's internal organs and tissues. The higher magnetic field strength allows for more precise imaging, which can help diagnose various conditions. 3-Tesla MRI machines are also more precise than traditional MRI machines and diagnose tumours or other abnormalities in the brain and the spinal cord.
PET-CT is an imaging test that uses Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Computerized Tomography (CT). It diagnoses neurological disorders, including brain tumours, Stroke, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's.
The PET part of the test involves injecting radioactive sugar into the body through an IV. The sugar collects in areas of the body where cells are using more oxygen than usual, showing bright spots on the images produced by the CT scan.
The CT scan takes pictures from many angles and combines them into cross-sectional image slices showing the body's structure at different depths. The PET scan adds information about how much activity is happening in other body areas at any given moment.
Molecular Diagnostics detects and measures specific cellular alterations and genetic sequences in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), amino acids, or their proteins. Molecular Diagnostics assess molecular biomarkers for specific diseases and help in diagnoses of neurological disorders and a person's health at a cellular and molecular level.
A Memory Clinic is a place where patients with problems related to their memory can receive help. The clinic has doctors who specialise in treating neurological disorders and provide services from diagnosis and treatment through research and education.
The goal of a Memory Clinic is to stop deterioration in Dementia through early diagnosis and treatment, identify and treat disorders that might be contributing to the patient's problems, evaluate new treatment possibilities, and assure patients.
After diagnosing a stroke, neurologists prescribe a series of scans and tests to identify how the stroke has affected the neurological system. The tests may include MRI, CT scan, Ultrasound, blood draws, Angiograms and Echocardiograms. These tests can shed light on the stroke's severity and the likelihood of additional strokes. Continuous monitoring and regular checkups can help neurologists detect clots and clotting sources which undergo surgical treatments under the best neurosurgeon in Gurgaon.
Neuro Intensive Care is a subspecialty of intensive care focusing on patients' neurosurgical and neurological care. Neuro intensive care aims to provide rapid assessment, stabilisation, and treatment of acute brain and nervous system disorders.