Clinical Biochemistry studies blood and other bodily fluids. The clinical biochemistry lab tests patients' blood, urine and other fluids to determine if they have any metabolic disorders, infections, or other health problems.
The primary purpose of clinical biochemistry is to aid in diagnosing disease and monitor patient progress during treatment.
- Clinical Microbiology and Serology
Clinical Microbiology and Serology are branches of the medical field that study infectious diseases. Clinical Microbiologists study bacteria and other microorganisms, while Serologists study antigens in the blood indicative of disease.
Serology takes a small amount of blood from a patient and then tests it for antigens that indicate the presence of certain diseases such as HIV/AIDS, syphilis, hepatitis B or C.
Clinical Microbiology grows pathogenic microorganisms in culture media to identify and determine their types.
Clinical pathology focuses on diagnosing disease through laboratory tests on blood, urine, saliva or other bodily fluids. They often rule out specific diseases before a patient starts treatment.
Cytopathology studies cells and tissues in their natural environment with a microscope, an electron microscope or a scanning electron microscope.
Cytopathologists will look at blood, urine, and other bodily fluids to see if there are any abnormal cells present. They may also look at biopsies or tissue samples from surgery. Visit our best multi-speciality hospital in Kharadi, Pune for the best treatment.
Cytopathology aims to diagnose cancer and other diseases before they become severe enough to cause symptoms or be detected by other methods such as imaging tests like MRI Scans.
Haematology is a branch of pathology that studies blood cells, blood formation and diseases. It includes the study of haematopoiesis, which is the formation of blood cells in the bone marrow, and hematopathology, which deals with diseases that affect the blood.
Molecular biology studies biological systems' molecular structure, function, and behaviour. It concerns how biological molecules work together to produce life and understand how they organise at a molecular level. The field has grown out of traditional biology and biochemistry, focused on macroscopic structures such as cells or organs.
2D ECHO stands for a two-dimensional Echocardiogram. It is an ultrasound that uses sound waves to take pictures of the heart, blood vessels and other organs. 2D ECHO examines the heart and determines if there are any problems with its structure or function. The test is safe for adults, children and infants.
Bone Densitometry determines the density of the bones. It diagnoses osteoporosis, which is a condition that causes bones to become brittle and break more easily. The test also monitors the effects of treatments for osteoporosis, such as hormone replacement therapy or calcium supplements.
Bone Densitometry measures the amount of radiation absorbed by bone tissue after X-rays. This data determines whether there has been any bone density change since the last test.
A CT Scan (Computed Tomography) uses X-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the body. CT scans get information about the lungs, bones, brain, and other parts of the body.
The procedure for getting a CT scan includes lying on a table that slides into a tunnel-shaped machine(X-ray Scanner). The X-rays pass through the body parts that need to be examined and produce images on a computer screen.
- Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) uses digital subtraction to create an image of the vessels and surrounding tissues in the body. The patient gets an X-Ray or Computed Tomography (CT) Scan, which provides an image of the heart and blood vessels. A contrast agent injected into the blood vessels allows clear subsequent images. The images are combined to form a final image to diagnose bulges in blood vessels, stroke, and malformations between the artery and veins.
Electroencephalography, or EEG, assesses the brain's electrical activity. It uses electrodes on the scalp to record electrical impulses in the brain. The signals are graphically displayed on a monitor as a wave pattern called an Electroencephalogram (EEG). This pattern shows the brain's active parts at any given time.
The type and frequency of these waves can help doctors diagnose neurological disorders, epilepsy, sleep disorders, and brain tumours. They can also determine whether someone is unconscious. Consult with our experts to know more about EEG procedure.
- Electromyography (EMG)/ Electrophysiology (EP)
Electromyography (EMG) records the electrical activity of muscle fibres by attaching electrodes to muscles. Researchers can measure the signals sent from the brain to these muscles when a person performs different tasks, allowing them to determine which muscles are used most during activity and how much force they produce.
EMG determines if patients with neurological disorders have muscle weakness or paralysis. It can also help athletes who want to improve their performance by training specific muscles more effectively.
Electrophysiology (EP) measures electrical activity within the heart through electrodes placed on the chest and arms.
A Gamma Camera detects cancer and other abnormalities and monitors how radiation treatment affects a patient's tumour.
Gamma Cameras use a radioactive substance to produce images of the body. The Gamma Camera detects this decay using a camera designed to detect Gamma Rays to detect cancer and abnormalities in the brain, heart, or other organs.
Holter Monitoring is a non-invasive heart monitor that records a patient's cardiac rhythm continuously for 24 hours. The device collects Electrocardiogram (ECG) data and stores it in a computer, which healthcare professionals can later analyse.
Mammography is a type of imaging to detect breast cancer. It is considered the gold standard in breast cancer screening to diagnose breast cancer early. Mammograms use low-dose X-rays to examine breasts for abnormalities.
Women over the age of 40 usually undergo Mammography. However, they can be performed on younger women if they have a family history of breast cancer or are at higher risk for developing the disease.
MRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a non-invasive procedure that uses magnetic fields and radio waves. MRI generates images of the body's internal structures in detail.
MRI Scans detect abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord, bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. MRI also diagnoses certain conditions like tumours or infections.
PET CT Scan combines Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Computerised Tomography (CT) to create a three-dimensional image of the body. This imaging form detects and monitors cancerous tumours and diagnoses other health conditions, such as aneurysms, strokes, heart disease, and brain damage.
Spirometry measures lung function. It involves breathing into a tube, which measures the air a patient can inhale and exhale.
The test can help diagnose asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD, and other lung diseases.
Treadmill Testing (TMT) assesses a person's aerobic fitness. The test measures the amount of oxygen a person consumes while exercising at different speeds on a treadmill and the heart rate. The test results calculate the VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake), a measure of physical fitness to detect high blood pressure, irregular heartbeats or risk for Coronary Artery Disease. Contact us at Manipal Hospitals to clear out all your queries.
Ultrasound generates images of internal body structures using sound waves. It is a standard medical imaging technique in various applications, including obstetrics, gynaecology, cardiology and radiology. A handheld probe called a transducer emits high-frequency sound waves into the body. These waves travel through tissues and reflect off tissues with different densities. The transducer receives the reflections and then processes them by a computer to create an image of the internal structures.
Urodynamic Studies help doctors diagnose and treat several bladder problems, including urinary incontinence, urge incontinence, and overactive bladder.
Bladder Catheterisation measures how much urine is in the bladder.
Cystometry measures pressure changes as urine fills and empties from it.
Uroflowmetry measures urine flow's volume and speed over time.
An X-ray (electromagnetic radiation) can pass through most objects, including the human body, except bones and rigid structures. It has a shorter wavelength than light but longer than ultraviolet rays.
X-rays diagnose broken bones, injuries, and diseases like cancer or tuberculosis. They detect foreign bodies inside the body and assess the damage caused by diseases such as diabetes or arthritis. In dentistry, they are used to make teeth moulds.