Posted On Feb 14, 2023
4 Min Read
The polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in our women population, mainly affecting the younger age groups. It affects 6–7% of the population. It is a lifestyle disorder. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance caused by the ovaries (the organ that produces and releases eggs) creating excess male hormones. If you have PCOS, your ovaries produce unusually high levels of hormones called androgens. This causes your reproductive hormones to become imbalanced.
It is commonly associated with the triad of irregular menses or absence of menses, excessive hair growth on the body, acne, and weight gain. The presence of mildly enlarged ovaries with a thick capsule and multiple small peripheral cysts may develop on your ovaries (fluid-filled sacs) due to lack of ovulation (anovulation), which will mostly show on ultrasound.
PCOS is one of the most common causes of female infertility. It can also increase your risk for other health conditions. A woman can get PCOS at any time after puberty. Most people are diagnosed in their 20s or 30s when they are trying to get pregnant. You may have a higher chance of getting PCOS if you are overweight, have obesity, or if other people in your family have PCOS. If you want to get the finest treatment, visit the best gynaecology hospital in Mysore.
The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. There is evidence that genetics play a role. Several other factors also play a role in causing PCOS:
High androgen levels prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs (ovulation), which causes irregular menstrual cycles. Irregular ovulation can also cause small, fluid-filled sacs to develop in the ovaries. High androgen levels also cause acne and excess hair growth in women.
Increased insulin levels cause the ovaries to make and release male hormones (androgens). The increased male hormone, in turn, suppresses ovulation and contributes to other symptoms of PCOS.
Insulin resistance means your body doesn't process insulin correctly, leading to high glucose levels in your blood. Not all individuals with insulin resistance have elevated glucose or diabetes, but insulin resistance can lead to diabetes. Being overweight or obese can also contribute to insulin resistance. Even if your blood glucose is normal, an elevated insulin level can indicate insulin resistance.
Some people have irregular or missed periods and with PCOS few people have very heavy bleeding when they do have a period but most have decreased flow in periods.
Signs of excess androgens, such as acne or excessive hair growth, or a blood test confirming excess androgen levels.
Cysts on one or both ovaries, many people don’t develop cysts.
Obstetrics and gynaecology doctors in Mysore will determine treatment based on your symptoms, medical history, and other health conditions. Treatments can include medications, lifestyle changes, or a combination of both.
If you do not plan to become pregnant, treatments include:
Options include birth control pills, patches, shots, a vaginal ring, or an intrauterine device (IUD). Hormonal birth control helps to regulate your menstrual cycle, improve acne, and help with excess hair growth.
Metformin is a drug used to treat diabetes. It works by helping your body process insulin. Once insulin is managed, some people with PCOS see improvements in their menstrual cycles.
Some drugs can block the effects of androgens. This helps control acne or hair growth caused by PCOS. Talk to your healthcare provider about whether they're right for you.
Losing weight and eating a healthy diet can have a positive effect on insulin levels.
A successful pregnancy begins with ovulation. Certain drugs have been proven to induce ovulation in women with PCOS. These can be tablets or injections, depending on your response to egg formation.
A laparoscopic surgical procedure called ovarian drilling can trigger ovulation by removing excess fluid in the ovaries that are producing androgen hormones.
Your egg is fertilized with your partner's sperm in a lab and then transferred to your uterus. This is an option for women with PCOS when medication doesn't help with ovulation.
There is no proven way to prevent PCOS, but you can take small steps to reduce your symptoms. For example, eating nutritious foods, exercising regularly, and managing your weight can help you avoid the effects of PCOS.
The hormone changes caused by menopause may make your PCOS go away, but not always. Sometimes the imbalance of hormones continues into menopause, meaning your imbalance does not change as you age. If your symptoms bother you or affect your quality of life, talk to your doctor so they can recommend treating your symptoms.