Posted On Dec 05, 2022
Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the prostate gland. The prostate is an organ that sits in a ring between the bladder and the urethra. The majority of men are diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early stage, when it is usually treatable. An increased prostate specific antigen test is frequently used to make the diagnosis. Results for prostate specific antigen are typically assessed through a simple blood test.
According to the spreads, prostate cancer is primarily divided into three categories. The first is localised prostate cancer, which is cancer that is localized to the prostate and has not spread to any lymph nodes or other organs. The second type of prostate cancer has expanded locally but not beyond the prostate gland, and it has not yet reached any other distant organs. The third type of prostate cancer is called metastatic carcinoma, where the condition has spread to other distant organs.
They frequently present in asymptomatic males with a high psa, which is normally diagnosed by a blood test. The majority of people never exhibit any prostate cancer-related symptoms. Some people may experience symptoms related to the urinary system, such as frequency, urgency, slow stream, or poor flow, which are not necessarily related to prostate cancer. Blood in the urine or the semen, weight loss, fatigue, or back pain coupled with weakness are less frequent symptoms.
Prostate biopsies are typically used to diagnose prostate cancer. It is a transrectal ultrasound scan-based procedure that is carried out through the rectum in the OPD. The patient can generally go home after the procedure; however, they might occasionally experience some slight rectal pain or see some blood in their urine or stools. Due to the fact that the procedure is performed through the rectum, there is a chance of infection, which may necessitate that the patient take antibiotics or, less frequently, may require hospitalisation.
Prostate cancer treatment in Mysore has not progressed to any organs or lymph nodes, include surgery, radiation therapy, or active surveillance. The other option is surgery, where the primary purpose of surgery is to remove the prostate gland and associated lymph nodes. Open surgery and robotic surgery are the two most popular methods of doing the procedure. Both approaches are similarly effective and have a similar cure rate for cancer.
Although there are some adverse consequences from surgery, urinary incontinence and reproductive dysfunction are the most frequent ones. Radiation therapy comes in two major forms: brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy. External-beam radiation therapy normally lasts for many weeks and is administered over a number of daily treatments. The prostate will receive a continuous dose of radiation for the course of the brachytherapy, which involves tracing a radioactive source straight into the prostate. Androgen deprivation therapy is frequently used in combination with radiation therapy. The main growth agent for the prostate gland, testosterone, is entirely removed during androgen deprivation therapy. It can be accomplished either temporarily with medication or permanently with surgical removal of both testicles. Urinary symptoms, such as urgency, burning, or frequent urination, as well as minor pain or bleeding in the rectum, which can occur in rare circumstances and last for a long time, are the most frequent side effects of radiation therapy. With regard to the third standard therapy for localised prostate, active surveillance, no urgent treatment is provided by the urologist in Mysore; instead, the prostate is left untreated until it is absolutely necessary. To identify if the cancer has advanced to the point where treatment is necessary, it is typically done with serial monitoring and a few tests.
In the second type of prostate cancer, there has been no distant organ dissemination in this case, despite the cancer having spread outside the prostate gland. Radiation therapy along with androgen deprivation therapy, or radical prostatectomy combined with radiation, or both, is the typical course of treatment for these.
Patients with malignancies at moderate or high risk are typically encouraged to seek immediate surgical or radiation treatment. Although there is no single best treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer, radiation therapy, androgen deprivation therapy, or surgery are commonly recommended.
Consultant - Urology
Manipal Hospitals, Mysore
5 min read