The Gastrointestinal Science
The Gastrointestinal Tract is responsible for the digestion and absorption of food. It consists of the mouth, Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
The pancreas secretes digestive juices that break down carbohydrates and proteins. It also produces insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels.
The Liver detoxifies the body from harmful substances like alcohol and drugs and produces bile, which helps digestion.
The Gallbladder stores biles, which contain salts that aid in digesting fats, emulsifying them into smaller droplets.
How Does The Digestive System Work?
The digestive system comprises the mouth, Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
Food enters the mouth and breaks into smaller pieces through the teeth and tongue.
The food then travels down through the Oesophagus to the stomach, which mixes with enzymes from the Pancreas and Liver.
The mixture then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into blood vessels while waste products leave the large intestine.
Waste, now called faeces, exits through the rectum and moves out of the body through the anus.
Common Gastrointestinal Conditions
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) affects the Oesophagus when stomach acid flows back into it, causing inflammation and damage to the oesophagus lining.
Peptic Ulcer Disease occurs when the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) becomes inflamed as a result of infection from bacteria called Helicobacter pylori.
Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders affect the organs of the gastrointestinal system. The most common FGIDs include Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), and functional dyspepsia.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Bleeding is when blood loses from the gastrointestinal tract. The causes of GI bleeding include ulcers, tumours, inflammation or infection in the GI tract.
Pancreaticobiliary Diseases impact the pancreas, the Spleen, or liver damage by infection, cancer, surgery, or injury.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease is when the intestines become inflamed. The two primary inflammatory bowel diseases are Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis.
Acute Liver is an increase in bilirubin level in the bloodstream, which causes jaundice and yellowing of the skin and can be fatal if not left untreated.
Colitis is a colon inflammation resulting from bacteria, viruses and reactions to certain food substances.
Liver Malignancy is a type of cancer that usually spreads to other organs through the blood and lymph systems.
Gastrointestinal Malignancy is a cancer that affects the digestive tract. It includes tumours on the Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus.
Manometry measures pressure inside the body to diagnose several diseases, including abdominal pain and constipation. It involves placing a catheter into the rectum, bladder, or uterus, which allows doctors to measure the pressure inside these organs. Our manometry treatment hospital in Patiala is equipped with top-notch facilities to take care of you, visit today.
A Colonoscopy examines the inside of the colon using a thin tube inserted into the rectum. Doctors use a Colonoscope to see the entire length of the large intestine, including its walls and mucous membranes, to check for abnormalities and signs of disease.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) allows doctors to examine the bile ducts, pancreas, and gallbladder by inserting a tube into the stomach through the mouth. The tube contains a camera and instruments that can remove stones from the bile duct or inject medication into it. To know more about ERCP treatment in Patiala, visit Manipal Hospitals.
The hydrogen Breath Tests bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance, carbohydrate malabsorption, or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). The test measures the amount of hydrogen in a person's breath after they drink a solution containing glucose or lactose.
OGD - Oesophago-Gastro Duodenoscopy examines the upper gastrointestinal tract, which includes the Oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. Doctors insert an endoscope, a long slender flexible tube with a light and camera at one end, into the stomach and duodenum to diagnose conditions such as bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, ulcers, tumours and cancers of the digestive system.
Endoscopic Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to examine internal structures in the gastrointestinal tract and other organs.
Doctors insert a tiny probe into a body cavity using a small incision. The probe emits sound waves, picked up by an ultrasound transducer on the probe's tip.
A liver scan uses radionuclides to diagnose or monitor liver disease. Doctors insert a radioactive substance into the bloodstream and measure the amount of absorbed radiation using a gamma camera.
Gallbladder Stones Surgery removes gallstones from the gallbladder. Gallstones are tiny rocks made of cholesterol and salts in the gallbladder and can cause severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever and chills.
Surgeons make small incisions on the abdomen so that a tiny camera can look inside and guide instruments to remove the stones.
Appendix Surgery removes the Appendix, a small pouch attached to the large intestine, and plays a vital role in digesting food and bacteria. Doctors remove the Appendix when they become inflamed or infected, which can cause pain, nausea and vomiting.
Rectal Prolapse Surgery corrects a rectal prolapse, a condition in which the rectum's lining protrudes through the anus. The lining of the rectum is called the mucosa, which is usually smooth, but in cases of rectal prolapse, it becomes wrinkled and can protrude through the anus.
The surgical procedure used to correct a rectal prolapse varies depending on its severity and location. In most cases, surgeons will perform an abdominal approach to remove any excess tissue from within the rectum before stitching up its walls, so they are tight again.
Splenectomy removes the Spleen, an organ located in the upper left of the abdomen. It acts as a blood filter, removing old or damaged red blood cells.
Doctors remove Spleen if it has problems, such as an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), which can occur because of infection or autoimmune disorders like lupus or scleroderma. A splenectomy may also treat certain types of cancer in children and adults, including Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or leukaemia.
Stapled Haemorrhoidectomy involves the removal of the tissue that causes bleeding in the rectum to remove the swollen haemorrhoidal cushions and help relieve symptoms. It may also treat prolapsed internal haemorrhoids—cushions that have fallen out of place or become detached from surrounding tissues.
Sleeve Gastrectomy is a bariatric (weight loss) surgery that removes the outer part of the stomach and creates a sleeve-shaped organ.
The surgery creates a small stomach pouch, limiting the food consumed.
Sleeve Gastrectomy is an irreversible procedure and is an obesity treatment.
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass is a weight loss surgery involving creating a small stomach pouch and connecting it to the small intestine, reducing the stomach's size and shortening the digestive tract's length, making it easier to absorb calories from food. It is an effective surgical method for treating obesity.
One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass (OGGB) treats medically obese patients who cannot lose weight through dieting and exercise.
Creation of a tiny pouch at the top of the stomach,
Connecting it to the middle section of the small intestine, and
Sealing off most of the bottom section of the stomach.
The surgery creates a smaller stomach pouch limiting food consumption, which helps control overeating. It also reduces hunger by slowing digestion and making the patient feel complete for extended periods.
Duodenal Switch involves
Reducing the size of the stomach,
Connecting the small intestine to the middle section of the small intestine, and
Removing a portion of the large intestine.
Duodenal switch surgery treats severe obesity when nothing else has worked by removing most of the stomach and most of the intestines while keeping a small part of both organs intact, reducing hunger pangs and helping prevent overeating.
Endoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (ESG) is a minimally-invasive weight-loss procedure involving removing part of the stomach, which causes you to feel full sooner and for more extended periods. The surgery is laparoscopic, and patients will be able to eat normally but must avoid foods high in fat or sugar.
With a reputation as the best gastro hospital near me, Manipal Hospitals offers exceptional care and expertise for gastrointestinal conditions.