Clinical biochemistry is the scientific study of the chemical processes occurring in living organisms. Doctors use clinical biochemistry to diagnose and treat disease by measuring the concentration of specific chemicals in the blood, urine, and other body fluids.
The most common tests in clinical biochemistry include blood glucose testing, electrolyte analysis, and lipid testing. These help detect diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, and cholesterol levels, respectively.
Clinical biochemistry also includes biochemical measurements used to assess how well an organ is functioning (e.g., Liver Function Test (LFT), Kidney Function Test (KFT)). These tests help doctors determine whether or not a patient needs a transplant or if they should begin treatment for an underlying condition such as cancer or diabetes mellitus and evaluation of the immune system.
Clinical Microbiology and Serology is a medical science branch concerned with studying microorganisms and how they impact human health. The clinical microbiologist specializes in identifying infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Serology is the study of blood serum. It can refer to any substance derived from blood plasma or blood cells, including antibodies and antigens used for diagnostic purposes. The subspecialties include studying bacteria, viruses, parasites, and infectious diseases serology, Eg. Hepatitis and HIV.
Clinical Pathology deals with diagnosing and treating disorders by analyzing body fluids such as blood and urine.
Clinical pathology involves testing samples for abnormalities, interpreting test results and making diagnoses, and treating patients based on the results.
Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that focuses on the microscopic examination of cells and cellular components from body tissues and fluids. Through this process, cytopathologists can identify the nature and origin of tumours, the health status of a person (The overall cell morphology often changes when a person is suffering from a deficiency or disorder.), and possible genetic disorders (Eg. Sickle Cell Anemia) and other conditions that may affect the function of individual cells.
Hematology is the study of blood. "Haematology" comes from the Greek word "haima", meaning blood. The most significant disease groups studied and analyzed through Haematology are Leukemia, Lymphoma, and Anemia.
Hematology deals with all aspects of blood, including its structural components (White Blood Cells, Red Blood Cells, Clotting Factors), function (Transport of nutrients and oxygen throughout the body), clotting (disorders related to clotting factors), and other disorders.
Hematological conditions include Anaemia (low red blood cell count), Infections such as HIV/AIDS, Sickle Cell Disease, Malaria, Cancerous tumours arising in the bone marrow, and many other conditions that affect the blood or blood cells.
Histopathology studies the cells and tissues in the body. It diagnoses diseases and determines the cause of the disease.
Histopathology uses samples from living tissue for examination under a microscope. Histopathologists look for abnormalities in tissue structure and function that could indicate disease or abnormality. They use this information to help doctors make informed diagnoses and chart treatment routes for their patients.
Molecular Biology involves the study of the structure, function, and replication of DNA and RNA molecules, as well as proteins and other biopolymers (polymeric units originating in the living organism as a result of biological processes. They can bond covalently to form long functional chains or sheets of large molecules). It also includes studying how these molecules are affected by genetic mutation and environmental factors like temperature, disease, infection, or light.
Molecular biologists use their knowledge of molecular biology to diagnose genetic disorders, assess cancer treatment progress, and study Karyotypes for possible chromosomal disorders.
2D ECHO (Echocardiography) uses ultrasound to evaluate the actual motion of the heart structures.
2D ECHO uses two-dimensional images, which are displayed on a screen and can be printed out for future reference if needed.
In contrast to other types of echocardiograms, 2D ECHO does not require contrast dye. It does not risk side effects like an allergic reaction and safely tests infants, young children, and adults.
Bone Densitometry measures bone mineral density (BMD) and content. It diagnoses osteoporosis and monitors treatment. Bone densitometry involves measuring the amount of radiation absorbed by bone tissue using X-rays, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or a special CT scan.
CT scan, or Computed Tomography, creates cross-sectional images of the body.
The machine uses X-rays to produce images of the body's internal organs and bones. The CT scanner takes hundreds of X-ray images as it rotates around the patient. Then a computer processes these images into cross-sectional views of the body.
Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) is imaging that allows the doctor to view the blood flow in the brain or any blockages in the arteries. The doctor injects a special dye into the patient's bloodstream, which travels through the body and gets absorbed by cells in the brain. When this happens, it shows up bright red on the scan. The doctor then takes multiple scans and consolidates them into a single compilation, and analyses them until they see where there might be an obstruction.
An Electroencephalogram (EEG) measures the brain's electrical activity using electrodes attached to the scalp that record electrical impulses traveling through the brain. These impulses determine whether there are any abnormalities in brain function.
The EEG is often used to diagnose epilepsy or other seizure disorders. It can also diagnose sleep disorders, including narcolepsy (a chronic disorder affecting the sleep-wake cycle) and sleep apnea (sleep disorder due to breathing).
Electromyography (EMG) is a method of collecting and analyzing electrical signals produced by muscles. It is commonly used in clinical settings to help diagnose neuromuscular diseases like muscular dystrophy. EMG can measure muscle activity at rest, during voluntary contraction, or while the patient performs specific tasks. The information collected from EMG helps determine whether or not a person has a neurological impairment and can help doctors determine if their symptoms result from the changes in their muscles or nervous system.
Electrophysiology (EP) studies the electrical properties of biological tissues. It has a wide range of applications, including diagnosing and treating heart diseases, epilepsy, and other conditions and understanding how neurons communicate with each other in the brain.
A Gamma Camera is a device that captures images of the body's tissues to diagnose disease. These devices use gamma radiation, a form of electromagnetic energy, to produce images of the tissues within the body.
The camera comprises a radioactive source and an electronic detector that converts radiation into an electronic signal for display on a monitor. The camera then transmits these signals through cables or wireless connections to an image processing unit.
Gamma cameras help detect cancers and help in other medical imaging procedures such as CT and PET scans.
Holter Monitoring is a test that tracks the heart's electrical activity for 24 hours or longer. It checks for abnormal rhythms or other heart problems.
Holter monitoring diagnoses arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms) and looks for signs of atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest and syncope (fainting).
During the test, a patient wears a device called an ambulatory electrocardiograph (or ECG) monitor that records the heart's electrical activity. The monitor has an antenna that sends and receives radio waves transmitted by satellite transmitters, allowing doctors to receive information about how well the heart works.
Mammography is a type of X-ray used to detect breast cancer. Mammograms place a device called a mammogram unit over the breast area where the tumour is suspected. The radiation from the machine passes through the breast tissue and onto film, which a radiologist then examines. If a tumour is present, it will appear on the film as an opaque spot.
An MRI scan produces images of the inside of the body using magnetic fields and radio waves. It is also known as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
A person undergoing an MRI scan lies on a table that slides into a tunnel-shaped magnet. The magnet creates an intense magnetic field around the body, producing radio waves, which bounce off tissues. Giant coils pick up the radio waves and produce a computer-generated body image.
MRI can investigate various medical conditions, including brain tumours and spinal cord injuries.
PET CT Scan combines Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Computed Tomography (CT). It uses two types of radiation in tandem: positrons, produced by radioactive material, and X-rays.
PET CT is used to diagnose disease and determine its extent. It can look at the brain, heart, lungs, abdomen, and other organs. The technology can also show how treatments work by showing whether they have reduced the size of tumours or other areas of concern.
Spirometry is the measurement of airflow through the lungs. The procedure uses a spirometer, which measures the airflow rate and the air volume that can be inhaled and exhaled. A healthy respiratory system produces smooth, steady air flow with each breath.
Treadmill Testing (TMT) is an exercise test used to evaluate heart and lung function. The test determines how well the body can use oxygen in aerobic exercise. The patient walks/ runs on a treadmill at various speeds and inclines. At the same time, the doctor monitors their heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing patterns.
Ultrasound creates an image of internal organs and tissues using sound waves to create an image of internal organs and tissues.
A transducer connected to a computer generates sound waves. The transducer sends the sound waves and then records their reflections as they bounce off organs in the body. This information creates an image of the internal organ systems.
Urodynamic studies are a series of tests to evaluate bladder function using a catheter inserted into the bladder. The catheter applies pressure to the bladder causing urine to flow out of the bladder and into a collecting bag. A doctor examines the pressure required to make this happen and how long urine empties from the bladder.
Urodynamic studies determine if there are any problems with bladder function, such as incontinence or urinary retention. They can also help identify the necessary treatment.
An X-ray is a type of electromagnetic radiation that can pass through soft tissue, but not bones. Doctors and radiologists use it to see inside the human body without surgery.
An X-ray machine uses high-energy electrons to produce X-rays. These high-energy electrons accelerate between two metal plates, which causes them to emit photons (particles) of electromagnetic radiation. As this radiation passes through the patient's body, it interacts with the molecules in their tissue, producing an image on a photographic plate or film and an electrostatic charge on the plate or film.
X-rays detect objects within the body that do not have enough electrons to cause ionization, including bones and organs such as the brain and heart.
Consult with a team of experts to get the best laboratory treatment in Patiala.