Third Trimester Fetal Development & Baby Growth
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Apr 08, 2022
Obs Gynae focuses on women's health during pregnancy and childbirth and the reproductive systems of female patients. The field of Obstetrics and Gynaecology also includes the management of complications associated with pregnancy and childbirth, including high-risk pregnancies. Obstetrics deals with childbirth, particularly prenatal care and delivery, whereas Gynaecology deals with the female reproductive system. It includes the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders associated with the female reproductive system. An Obs Gynae specialist provides care for women throughout their life cycle, from puberty through menopause and beyond. Obs Gynae also specializes in diseases of the female reproductive system and infertility treatments.
The Manipal Hospitals, the best hospital in Patiala celebrates womanhood and takes pride in the comprehensive range of services to treat all gynecological conditions. We are the best gynecology hospital in Patiala and offer a multidisciplinary team of highly proficient Gynaecologists and Obstetricians to treat all women's health issues.
Manipal Hospitals are India's leading healthcare providers, with more than 4000 doctors who have touched the lives of more than 45 million people.
This is a procedure that involves extracting a small piece of tissue from the cervix to facilitate lab testing for cervical cancer and precancerous conditions that could threaten the health of the patient in the future. Biopsies are largely pain-free procedures that do not require advanced recovery times.
A Non-Stress Test (NST) is a test for fetal wellbeing. It measures fetal heart rate and response to movement in the third trimester to ensure that the baby is doing well.
An IUCD or Intra-uterine Contraceptive Device or coil is a T-shaped implant impregnated with copper or hormones that is placed in the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy. This is a safe and effective non-permanent method of female contraception.
Obstetric ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of a developing embryo or foetus within pregnant women, as well as the mother's uterus and ovaries. It does not use ionizing radiation and has no known harmful effects.
Pap Smear or Pap Test is a vaginal exam that screens for cervical cancer. This is done by taking a swab to collect cervical cells to be examined for abnormal growth and other indications of precancerous /cancerous cells. It’s a simple procedure that takes approximately 5 minutes.
Constantly buzzing with a stream of women and babies coming in to meet our gynaecologists, our outpatient and inpatient unit is equipped to diagnose and treat a range of gynaecological conditions that do not require surgery or hospitalization. From screening tests, ultrasound scans and mammograms, to high risk pregnancy management, pain and bleeding…
A non-stress test (NST) is a common prenatal test used to check on a baby's health in the womb.
The surgical removal of the uterus is called a hysterectomy. It is performed when the uterus is afflicted by uterine fibroids, cancer, uterine prolapse (moving out of position), adenomyosis (abnormal thickening of uterine walls), endometriosis and other abnormalities in the uterus that threaten the patient's health. Typically, a hysterectomy is a last…
Cancer can be preventable and appropriate tests can detect any possibility of the disease in women. A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on your cervix which is the opening of the uterus. During the routine procedure, cells from your cervix are…
For those who seek to postpone having a baby, or just stop having one, our family planning services unit is the right place to come to. Our gynaecologists advise you on the best possible contraception and sterilization options.
Preparing a woman for pregnancy is a crucial part of family planning, where a specialist ascertains fertility, as well as the risks of pregnancy and childbirth. Consulting a gynecologist before attempting to have children can dramatically improve the experience of pregnancy and childbirth.
Postnatal care (PNC) is the care given to the mother and her newborn baby immediately after the birth and for the first six weeks of life. Women could also go through hormonal changes that could affect their mental health, or they could have lactation issues.
A separate menopausal clinic is available for the treatment of pre-menopausal conditions. Post-menopausal counseling and treatment are provided by expert advisors and specialists.
Poly-Cystic Ovarian syndrome is a fairly common disorder experienced by many women. Treatment is available with doctors who can help monitor and control the condition with personalized diet and lifestyle plans for individual patients.
Puberty is the process a girl’s body goes through as she develops into an adult. Some of the common puberty disorders treated at Manipal Hospitals by our gynaecologists include Delayed puberty – puberty hasn't started by age 13; Precocious puberty – puberty begins too early, before age 7 or 8 in girls; Contrasexual pubertal development – development…
Sometimes, a woman’s cervix – the lowest end of the uterus – may be weak to carry a pregnancy through because it opens up easily leading to a miscarriage. Cervical cerclage is a surgical procedure in which sutures or synthetic tape is used to reinforce the cervix especially in women with a short cervix.
At one point, endoscopy during pregnancy was believed to endanger the foetus in the womb. Therefore it is generally discouraged endoscopy during pregnancy and, if absolutely necessary, recommended that procedures occur during the second trimester.
Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows your doctor to look inside your uterus in order to diagnose and treat causes of abnormal bleeding. Hysteroscopy is done using a hysteroscope, a thin, lighted tube that is inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus.
We understand that women are naturally predisposed to several changes in their body in their lifetime – starting from menstruation and childbirth to menopause and age-related gynaecological health issues. This is why our dedicated and specialized Well Women Clinic seeks to address all their conditions with responsibility and consideration. Our Well…
Basically a prenatal test in which a sample of the chorionic villi is removed from the placenta for testing, Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) ing (CVS) is a prenatal test that is used to detect birth defects, genetic diseases, and other problems during pregnancy.
A tremendously specialized medical field, genetics is about heredity and certain risk factors involved in the genes. Every child inherits genes from both of their biological parents and these genes in turn express specific traits.
Also known as diagnostic laparoscopy, this is a surgical diagnostic procedure used to examine the organs inside the abdomen and reproductive organs. It's a low-risk, minimally invasive procedure that requires only small incisions.
The field of robotic surgery has developed rapidly, and its use to treat gynaecologic conditions has grown exponentially. Harnessing their skills to operate this state of the art machine, gynaeco surgeons at Manipal Hospitals operate the robot arms to perform some of the exacting gynaecological surgeries way beyond what a human hand could possibly…
Menopause is a natural part of ageing when a woman stops having her monthly period. It is a normal process marking the end of a woman's reproductive years. However, some women cannot handle menopause well because of a few irregularities in their menstrual cycle such as early menopause either as a result of a surgical intervention such as removal of…
Advanced medical technology has revolutionized the healthcare world by making surgeries easier to perform and more comfortable for patients. Cryosurgery is one of them. Also called cryotherapy, it is the use of extreme cold produced by liquid nitrogen or argon gas to destroy abnormal tissue.
Perimenopause is early menopause and can begin eight to 10 years before menopause sets in when the ovaries gradually produce less estrogen. It usually starts in a woman's 40s, but can start in the 30s as well. At this stage, many women can experience menopause symptoms in spite of still having menstrual cycles during this time, and can get pregnant.
Medical research confirms that 70-80 percent of women will develop uterine fibroids in their lifetime. Fibroids are benign growths of muscle cells and tissues and pose no risk of turning cancerous. However, in some women, especially during menopause, fibroids can cause a variety of health conditions that include heavy or prolonged periods, bleeding…
For couples who find it difficult to get pregnant due to certain infertility issues, our Infertility Clinic is a boon. Endowed with the qualifications and experience to treat infertility issues, the infertility specialists at our Clinic examine and study the underlying complications in couples hindering their chance at having a baby. The Clinic is…
All our women and child clinics are highly competent to conduct various tests and perform procedures that do not require hospitalization. Some of these include Cervical (Cone) Biopsy Colporrhaphy or surgical repair of the vaginal wall, Colposcopy to detect cervical cancer signs, Dilation and Curettage (D&C), Endometrial Ablation, Endometrial or Uterine…
Each pregnancy is different even if it’s your tenth. We understand this perfectly and strive to meet the individual needs of your pregnancy and your newborn’s. Our obstetric care team is one of the finest in the country and supports you to understand your pregnancy and preferences.
Women often neglect their health in their endeavor to care for their family’s wellbeing. Steadfast in our belief that all women especially after 35 should have an annual check-up we conduct routine tests through the year, backed by comprehensive assistance and counselling. In addition to performing these vital screening tests, we also review women’s…
This is one of the foremost tests in assisted reproduction that gives hope to millions of couples who want to have a baby. Follicular study and monitoring are done to study ovarian follicles that are used to identify ovulation of egg. It is an ultrasound scan done inside the vagina to study the ovaries, uterus and uterus lining. A follicle scan should…
What are Obstetrics and Gynaecology Conditions?
Obstetrics is the medical care of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth. Gynecology is the medical care of women, specifically their reproductive health.
Common conditions in Obstetrics and Gynaecology include:
Infertility in women disables them from getting pregnant even after one year of trying. The causes of Infertility in women are varied and include Hormonal problems, Ovulation Disorders, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), Endometriosis, Tubal Blockage, and Uterine Fibroids.
PCOD can occur in pre-and post-menopausal women resulting in irregular menstrual cycles, Infertility, or extra growth of body hair and acne. The tiny sacs of fluid that develop along the outer edge of the ovary in PCOD are called cysts. These cysts contain immature eggs, which are called follicles. The follicles fail to release eggs regularly.
Many pregnant women experience morning sickness or nausea, leading to dehydration, which can adversely affect the baby's growth and development. There are many other common pregnancy-related problems such as Anaemia (a lack of iron in the body), Gestational Diabetes (a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy), Hemorrhoids (swollen veins around the anus), and Varicose Veins (stretched veins in the legs or arms)
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
UTIs are common bacterial infections affecting the Urinary Tract, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Pain or burning during urination, often accompanied by frequent urination, nausea, and vomiting, are common symptoms of UTI. Other symptoms include chills, fever, and blood in the urine.
Manipal Hospitals has the best gynecologist obstetricians in Patiala. Moreover, it offers treatment for all Obs Gynae conditions, including:
High-risk pregnancy management
Pain and bleeding disorders
Medical termination of pregnancy
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
A Cervical Biopsy involves removing a small amount of tissue from the Cervix to diagnose or treat Cervical Cancer.
Doctors recommend Cervical Biopsies when they suspect Cervical Cancer or as a part of regular health care for people with abnormal Pap Test results.
Non-Stress Test is a way to check a baby's health in the mother's womb. The test is performed by attaching sensors to the mother's abdomen and monitors the baby's heartbeat and movements. If there is any irregularity or lack of movement, it could be an indication of a problem with the baby.
The test does not cause any stress to the fetus.
The USG scan is a type of Ultrasound to determine the health of a fetus. During this procedure, a high-frequency sound wave is passed through the body and reflected from organs, muscles, and bones. An experienced radiologist interprets the resultant images.
A USG aims to identify abnormalities or developmental delays to offer early treatment or support if necessary.
A Pap Smear detects Cervical Cancer by collecting cells from the surface of the Cervix and sending them to a lab for analysis. The doctor will look at these cells under a microscope and check for any abnormalities that may indicate cancer. If a doctor finds something suspicious, they will recommend additional tests to see if there are any problems in the tissue.
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test detects the presence of HPV in the body. Women at risk for developing cervical cancer might undergo the test.
The HPV Test needs further tests as the presence of HPV does not necessarily mean the patient has cancer. The virus transmits through sexual contact and often clears on its own.
Colposcopy examines the Cervix by inserting a small instrument called a Colposcope into the Vagina. The Colposcope has a light that allows the doctor to see the Vagina and Cervix's interior. The doctor will then apply a solution to the Cervix, highlighting the abnormal cells illuminated by the light.
Hysteroscopy allows doctors to see inside the Uterus, Fallopian Tubes, and Cervix. Hysteroscopy helps to diagnose problems like Fibroids, Polyps, and Endometrial cancer. It can also diagnose and treat abnormal uterine bleeding.
The doctor inserts a flexible tube with a tiny camera at its tip into the Vagina and Cervix. The camera sends images to a monitor.
Chorionic Villus Sampling
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is a genetic testing method during pregnancy. It detects whether the fetus has any health conditions like Down Syndrome by taking a tiny Chorionic Villi sample, cells from the Placenta.
Fertilized eggs form Chorionic Villi and share genes with the fetus.
Follicular Imaging in Assisted Reproduction
Follicular Imaging in Assisted Reproduction is a non-invasive and painless test that helps couples to conceive. It studies ovarian follicles to identify egg ovulation and lets the doctor see the development of follicles within the ovary. The test uses an Ultrasound inside the Vagina to study the Ovaries, Uterus, and Uterus Lining.
An Anomaly Scan is a detailed ultrasound scan carried out between 18 and 21 weeks of pregnancy. This scan checks the fetus's physical development and looks in detail at the fetus's bones, heart, brain, spinal cord, face, kidneys, and abdomen. It produces a 2D image giving a side view of the fetus.
This scan allows the doctor to look for anomalies like brain conditions, Cleft Lip, and bone alignment.
A Viability Scan happens during the first trimester of pregnancy to determine whether or not there is a chance that an embryo will develop normally. It can also determine how far along in the pregnancy an embryo is. It helps doctors decide whether or not to continue with a pregnancy.
The test inserts a thin Ultrasound probe into the Vagina to look inside the Uterus.
Doppler Studies are a type of Ultrasound to create images of blood flow and other bodily functions. They help diagnose, monitor the fetal heart rate, and evaluate the baby's health during pregnancy.
A Doppler Scan measures the blood flow through the baby's umbilical cord and around their body, such as their brain and heart, to show whether they are getting all the oxygen and nutrients they need via the Placenta.
Fetal Echo Studies
Fetal Echo Studies are a special kind of Ultrasound to look at the development of the fetus. The study is usually carried out around 20 weeks of pregnancy using an ultrasound machine.
Doctors use the study results to monitor the fetus's growth and development, which can help detect any abnormalities or problems with development.
Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic test that uses a sample of Amniotic Fluid to detect genetic disorders and other fetal problems. It determines if a baby has Down syndrome or other abnormalities like Spina Bifida.
An IUCD (Intrauterine Contraceptive Device) is a small, T-shaped device inserted into the Uterus to prevent pregnancy.
IUCDs effectively prevent pregnancy, with more than 99% success rates. They can last anywhere from 3 to 10 years, depending on the type of IUCD and its compatibility.
A Hysterectomy involves removing the Uterus to treat Uterine Fibroids, Uterine Cancer or to stop heavy menstrual bleeding. The surgery can be performed through processes like Abdominal Incision (open surgery) or with a Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Approach (Laparoscopic Surgery).
The exact procedure depends on the reason for the Hysterectomy. In some cases, surgeons must remove Ovaries, Tubes and the surrounding organs. A hysterectomy requires several days of recovery at home.
Sterilization is a permanent method of contraception. It involves surgically removing the Fallopian Tubes and Ovaries or blocking them with clips or rings. The procedure prevents eggs from being released so that sperm cannot fertilize them.
Cerclage is a surgical procedure that involves placing a stitch to close the Cervix to prevent a miscarriage due to a weak Cervix or previous miscarriage.
The surgeon makes an incision in the Vagina and uses sutures or staples to attach them around the Cervix to hold it closed so that it cannot open before it is ready.
Puberty Disorder Treatment
Girls may experience Puberty Disorders as they develop into adults. Some common Puberty Disorders are:
Delayed Puberty beyond 13 years.
Precocious Puberty begins too early, before eight years.
Contrasexual Pubertal development of male characteristics
Premature Thelarche develops breasts without any other Puberty signs.
The treatment depends upon the condition and may include medications and lifestyle changes.
Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) is a common condition that affects women in their reproductive years. The main symptoms are irregular or absent menstrual periods, excessive hair growth on the face and body, and weight gain.
Several treatments for PCOD include lifestyle changes, medication, and surgery. Lifestyle changes include eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly. Medication may include drugs to regulate periods or to help ovulate. Doctors may also recommend surgery for certain rare conditions.
Hormone Therapy treats Menopause related complications. This treatment uses Hormone drugs to treat the symptoms of Menopause complications, such as hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness. Hormone Therapy also helps prevent common conditions like Osteoporosis and Heart Disease by increasing bone density and lowering blood pressure.
Cryosurgery is a non-invasive treatment that uses low temperatures to destroy suspicious cells or tissue in a woman's Cervix. Doctors use it on Precancerous Lesions and on invasive cancers that have not spread to other areas of the body.
The procedure involves freezing the targeted cells with liquid nitrogen and removing them with forceps or an electric scalpel.
Consult with specialized doctors at the gynecology hospital in Patiala
Facilities Available At Manipal Hospitals, Patiala
Manipal Hospitals has the top gynecologist in Patiala. The world-class facilities used by the Gynae doctor in Patiala include:
General Gynaecological Services
Outpatient Gynaecological Services
Inpatient Gynaecological Services
Emergency Gynaecological Services
Family Planning Services and Sterilisation
Post Natal Care
Well Women Clinic
Robotic Surgeries in Gynaecology
Obstetrics/ Pregnancy Services
High-Risk Pregnancy Management
Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery
A gynecologist is a doctor who specializes in women's reproductive health. Obstetricians care for women during their pregnancy and just after the baby is born. They also deliver babies. An ob-gyn is trained to do all of these things.
12.5 years is the average age of menarche or the first menstrual cycle. However, it may vary for individuals. To more clarity, you should consult with an experience gynecologist in Patiala.
The best way to prevent STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) is to practice safe sex using condoms and other barrier methods and limit the number of sexual partners.
Painful periods are a common symptom for many women. There are several possible causes of painful periods:
Ovulation: Ovulation may irritate the Uterus lining. This irritation causes swelling and bleeding, which may result in pain.
Endometriosis: When tissue similar to the uterine lining grows outside of the Uterus, it may cause inflammation and scarring, leading to pain during menstruation.
Fibroids: Tumors that grow within or around the Uterus. They can cause inflammation which results in pain during menstruation.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): A Reproductive Tract Infection that includes both Fallopian Tubes and Uterus caused by bacteria.
Painful periods need an evaluation from the best Obstetricians at Manipal Hospitals, the best gynaecology hospital in Patiala.
Some warning signs of Infertility in women are:
Pain during Intercourse
Infrequent or Absent Ovulation
We recommend meeting a Gynae doctor in Patiala to discuss the symptoms.
Manipal Hospital is one of the best gynae hospitals in Patiala. Plan your pregnancy or discuss the best birth control methods with our gynecologists in Patiala.